author = {Gawthrop, P.J. and Rizwi, F.},
  affiliation = {School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK},
  title = {Coaxially Coupled Inverted Pendula: Bond Graph-Based Modelling, Design and Control},
  booktitle = {Bond Graph Modelling of Engineering Systems},
  editor = {Borutzky, Wolfgang},
  publisher = {Springer New York},
  isbn = {978-1-4419-9368-7},
  keyword = {Engineering},
  pages = {179-194},
  doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-9368-75},
  abstract = {A bond graph method is used to examine qualitative aspects of a class of unstable under-actuated mechanical systems. It is shown that torque actuation leads to an unstabilisable system, whereas velocity actuation gives a controllable system which has, however, a right-half plane zero. The fundamental limitations theory of feedback control when a system has a right-half plane zero and a right-half plane pole is used to evaluate the desirable physical properties of coaxially coupled inverted pendula. An experimental system which approximates such a system is used to illustrate and validate the approach.},
  year = 2011

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