common.bib

@comment{{Database of the Glasgow University  Centre for Systems and Control}}
@comment{{Abreviations for Journals }}
@comment{{Shortcuts for Institutions }}
@comment{{Shortcuts for Report Type }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1967 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1968 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1970 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1971 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1972 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1973 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1974 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1975 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1976 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1977 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1978 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1979 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1980 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1981 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1982 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1983 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1984 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1985 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1986 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1987 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1988 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1989 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1990 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1991 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1992 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1993 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1994 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1995 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1996 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1997 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1998 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 1999 }}
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@article{RonArsGaw99,
  class = {Intermittent},
  author = {E. Ronco and  T. Arsan and P. J. Gawthrop},
  cscauthor = {pjg},
  title = {Open-Loop Intermittent Feedback Control: Practical
		 Continuous-time  {GPC}},
  journal = {IEE Proceedings Part~D: Control Theory and Applications},
  month = {September},
  volume = 146,
  number = 5,
  pages = {426--434},
  year = 1999,
  abstract = {A conceptual, and practical difficulty with the
          continuous-time generalised predictive controller is solved
          by replacing the continuously moving horizon by an
          intermittently moving horizon. This allows slow optimisation
          to occur concurrently with a fast control action. Some
          nonlinear simulations illustrate the potential of this
          approach.},
  doi = {10.1049/ip-cta:19990504}
}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2000 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2001 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2002 }}
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@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2003 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2004 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2005 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2006 }}
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@article{GawWan06,
  author = {Peter J. Gawthrop and Liuping Wang},
  title = {Intermittent predictive control of an inverted pendulum},
  journal = {Control Engineering Practice},
  year = 2006,
  volume = 14,
  number = 11,
  pages = {1347-1356},
  month = {November},
  doi = {10.1016/j.conengprac.2005.09.002},
  abstract = {Intermittent predictive pole-placement control is successfully applied 
              to the constrained-state control of a prestabilised experimental inverted pendulum.}
}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2007 }}
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@article{GawWan07,
  author = {Peter J Gawthrop and Liuping Wang},
  title = {Intermittent Model Predictive Control},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers
                Pt. I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering},
  year = 2007,
  volume = 221,
  number = 7,
  pages = {1007-1018},
  doi = {10.1243/09596518JSCE417},
  abstract = {Intermittent control, where a sequence of open-loop
  trajectories are punctuated by intermittent feedback, is described
  and a number of design methods presented.  A generalised hold
  representation is derived and shown to be useful for both
  implementation and analysis. The relationship between predictive
  control of a time delay system and intermittent control is examined
  and it is shown that a simplified predictor can be used in the
  latter case.

  The applicability of intermittent control to the implementation of
  MPC is discussed and illustrated by the control of a difficult
  mechanical system -- a self-balancing seesaw.
}
}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2008 }}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2009 }}
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@article{GawWan09,
  author = {Gawthrop, Peter J.
		and Wang, Liuping},
  title = {Constrained intermittent model predictive control},
  journal = {International Journal of Control},
  year = 2009,
  publisher = {Taylor and Francis},
  volume = 82,
  issue = 6,
  pages = {1138--1147},
  abstract = {The generalised hold formulation of intermittent control is re-examined and shown to have some useful theoretical and practical properties. It is shown that this provides a foundation for constrained model predictive control in an intermittent context. The method is illustrated using an example and verified with experimental results.},
  issn = {0020-7179},
  note = {Published online 27 January 2009},
  doi = {10.1080/00207170802474702}
}
@article{Gaw09,
  author = {Peter J Gawthrop},
  title = {Frequency Domain Analysis of Intermittent Control},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers
                Pt. I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering},
  year = 2009,
  volume = 223,
  number = 5,
  pages = {591-603},
  doi = {10.1243/09596518JSCE759},
  abstract = {
    Intermittent control is a feedback control design method that
    combines both continuous-time and discrete-time domains; a recent
    result shows that this form of intermittent control can be
    rewritten as a sampled-data feedback system with a particular
    vector generalised hold. This paper builds on this result to give,
    for the first time, a frequency domain analysis of the closed-loop
    system containing an intermittent controller.

    This analysis is illustrated using two examples. The first example
    is related to the human balance control system and us thus
    physiologically relevant. The second example gives a theoretical
    explanation of the phenomenon of self-induced oscillations in
    intermittent control systems.
}
}
@article{GawWan09a,
  author = {Peter J Gawthrop and Liuping Wang},
  title = {Event-driven Intermittent Control},
  journal = {International Journal of Control},
  year = 2009,
  note = {Published online 09 July 2009},
  volume = 82,
  number = 12,
  pages = {2235 - 2248},
  month = {December},
  doi = {10.1080/00207170902978115},
  abstract = {
  An intermittent controller with fixed sampling interval is recast as
  an event-driven controller. The key aspect of intermittent control
  that makes this possible is the use of basis functions, or,
  equivalently, a generalised hold, to generate the intersample
  open-loop control signal. The controller incorporates both
  feedforward events in response to known signals and feedback events
  in response to detected disturbances. The latter feature makes use
  of an extended basis-function generator to generate open-loop
  predictions of states to be compared with measured or observed
  states. Intermittent control is based on an underlying
  continuous-time controller; it is emphasised that the design of this
  continuous-time controller is important, particularly in the
  presence of input disturbances.  Illustrative simulation examples
  are given.
}
}
@article{Gaw09a,
  author = {P.J. Gawthrop},
  title = {Act-and-Wait and Intermittent Control: Some Comments},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology},
  year = 2009,
  note = {Published on-line: 10/11/2009},
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2009.2034403},
  issn = {1063-6536},
  abstract = {The act-and-wait control introduced by Insperger is shown to be related 
              to a form of intermittent control. Theoretical and practical similarities 
               and differences between the two methods are explored.}
}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2010 }}
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@article{GawWan10,
  author = {Gawthrop, Peter J.
		and Wang, Liuping},
  title = {Intermittent redesign of continuous controllers},
  journal = {International Journal of Control},
  year = 2010,
  publisher = {Taylor and Francis},
  volume = 83,
  issue = 8,
  pages = {1581--1594},
  doi = {10.1080/00207179.2010.483691},
  abstract = {The reverse-engineering idea developed by Maciejowski in the context of model-based predictive control is applied to the redesign of continuous-time compensators as intermittent controllers. Not only does this give a way of designing constrained input and state versions of continuous-time compensators but also provides a method for turning continuous-time compensators into event-driven versions. The procedure is illustrated by three examples: an event-driven PID controller relevant to the human balance control problem, a constrained version of the classical mechanical vibration absorber of den Hartog and an event driven and constrained vibration absorber.},
  issn = {0020-7179}
}
@article{LorGolLakGaw10,
  author = {Loram, Ian David and Gollee, Henrik and Lakie, Martin and Gawthrop, Peter},
  title = {{Human control of an inverted pendulum: Is continuous control necessary? Is intermittent control effective? Is intermittent control physiological?}},
  volume = 589,
  issue = 2,
  pages = {307-324},
  doi = {10.1113/jphysiol.2010.194712},
  abstract = {Human motor control is often explained in terms of engineering ″servo″ theory.  Recently, continuous, optimal control using internal models has emerged as a leading paradigm for voluntary movement.  However, these engineering paradigms are designed for high bandwidth, inflexible, consistent systems whereas human control is low bandwidth and flexible using noisy sensors and actuators.  By contrast, engineering intermittent control was designed for bandwidth-limited applications.  Our general interest is whether intermittent rather than continuous control is generic to human motor control.  Currently, it would be assumed that continuous control is the superior and physiologically natural choice for controlling unstable loads, for example as required for maintaining human balance.  Using visual manual tracking of an unstable load, we show that control using gentle, intermittent taps is entirely natural and effective.  The gentle tapping method resulted in slightly superior position control and velocity minimisation, a reduced feedback time delay, greater robustness to changing actuator gain and equal or greater linearity with respect to the external disturbance.  Control was possible with a median contact rate of 0.8±0.3 s-1.  However, when optimising position or velocity regulation, a modal contact rate of 2s-1 was observed.  This modal rate was consistent with insignificant disturbance-joystick coherence beyond 1-2 Hz in both tapping and continuous contact methods.  For this load, these results demonstrate a motor control process of serial ballistic trajectories limited to an optimum rate of 2 s-1.  Consistent with theoretical reasoning, our results suggest that intermittent open loop action is a natural consequence of human physiology.},
  journal = {The Journal of Physiology},
  note = {Published online November 22, 2010},
  year = 2011
}
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@article{GawLorLakGol11,
  author = {Peter Gawthrop and Ian Loram and Martin Lakie and Henrik Gollee},
  title = {Intermittent Control: A Computational Theory of Human Control},
  journal = {Biological Cybernetics},
  year = 2011,
  volume = 104,
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {31-51},
  doi = {10.1007/s00422-010-0416-4},
  note = {Published online: 17th February 2011},
  abstract = {Human motor control is often explained in terms of engineering ″servo″ theory. Recently, continuous, optimal control using internal models has emerged as a leading paradigm for voluntary movement. However, these engineering paradigms are designed for high bandwidth, inflexible, consistent systems whereas human control is low bandwidth and flexible using noisy sensors and actuators. By contrast, engineering intermittent control was designed for bandwidth-limited applications. Our general interest is whether intermittent rather than continuous control is generic to human motor control. Currently, it would be assumed that continuous control is the superior and physiologically natural choice for controlling unstable loads, for example as required for maintaining human balance. Using visual manual tracking of an unstable load, we show that control using gentle, intermittent taps is entirely natural and effective. The gentle tapping method resulted in slightly superior position control and velocity minimisation, a reduced feedback time delay, greater robustness to changing actuator gain and equal or greater linearity with respect to the external disturbance. Control was possible with a median contact rate of 0.8±0.3 s-1. However, when optimising position or velocity regulation, a modal contact rate of 2s-1 was observed. This modal rate was consistent with insignificant disturbance-joystick coherence beyond 1-2 Hz in both tapping and continuous contact methods. For this load, these results demonstrate a motor control process of serial ballistic trajectories limited to an optimum rate of 2 s-1. Consistent with theoretical reasoning, our results suggest that intermittent open loop action is a natural consequence of human physiology. }
}
@article{GawWan11,
  author = {Gawthrop, Peter and Wang, Liuping},
  title = {The system-matched hold and the intermittent control separation principle},
  journal = {International Journal of Control},
  volume = 84,
  number = 12,
  pages = {1965-1974},
  year = 2011,
  doi = {10.1080/00207179.2011.630759},
  abstract = { An intermittent controller is a form of hybrid controller which adds a generalised sample and hold mechanism to an underlying continuous-time feedback control system. The sampling may be non-uniform or event driven. One particular form of the hold, termed the system-matched hold (SMH) mimics the behaviour of the closed-loop feedback control signal during the intermittent intervals. It is shown in this article that this choice of hold leads to an intermittent separation principle. In particular, this simple analytical result ensures that when using the SMH, the separation properties of the underlying state-estimate feedback control system carry over to the intermittent control system. This separation principle for the SMH has the important consequence that, unlike the zero-order hold case, the stability of the closed-loop system in the fixed sampling case is not dependent on sample interval. It is therefore suggested that the SMH should replace the conventional zero-order hold in circumstances where the sample interval is unknown, time-varying or determined by events. }
}
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@comment{{Database of publications by CSC in 2012 }}
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@article{GawNeiWag12,
  author = {Gawthrop, Peter J. and Neild, Simon A. and Wagg, David J.},
  title = {Semi-active damping using a hybrid control approach},
  year = 2012,
  doi = {10.1177/1045389X12436734},
  abstract = {In this article, a hybrid control framework is used to design semi-active controllers for vibration reduction. It is shown that the semi-active skyhook damper, typically used for vibration reduction, can be recast in the framework of an event-driven intermittent controller. By doing this, we can then exploit the well-developed techniques associated with hybrid control theory to design the semi-active control system. Illustrative simulation examples are based on a 2 degree-of-freedom system, often used to model the dynamics of a quarter car body model. The simulation results demonstrate how hybrid control design techniques can improve the overall performance of the semi-active control system.},
  journal = {Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures},
  note = {Published online February 21, 2012}
}
@article{LorKamGolGaw12,
  author = {Loram, Ian D. and {van de Kamp}, Cornelis and Gollee, Henrik and Gawthrop, Peter J.},
  title = {Identification of intermittent control in man and machine},
  volume = {9},
  number = {74},
  pages = {2070-2084},
  year = {2012},
  doi = {10.1098/rsif.2012.0142},
  abstract = {Regulation by negative feedback is fundamental to engineering and biological processes. Biological regulation is usually explained using continuous feedback models from both classical and modern control theory. An alternative control paradigm, intermittent control, has also been suggested as a model for biological control systems, particularly those involving the central nervous system. However, at present, there is no identification method explicitly formulated to distinguish intermittent from continuous control; here, we present such a method. The identification experiment uses a special paired-step set-point sequence. The corresponding data analysis use a conventional ARMA model to relate a theoretically derived equivalent set-point to control signal; the novelty lies in sequentially and iteratively adjusting the timing of the steps of this equivalent set-point to optimize the linear time-invariant fit. The method was verified using realistic simulation data and was found to robustly distinguish not only between continuous and intermittent control but also between event-driven intermittent and clock-driven intermittent control. When applied to human pursuit tracking, event-driven intermittent control was identified, with an intermittent interval of 260–310 ms (n = 6, p < 0.05). This new identification method is applicable for machine and biological applications.},
  journal = {Journal of The Royal Society Interface},
  note = {Published on-line April 4, 2012}
}
@article{GawGol12,
  author = {Gawthrop, Peter J and Gollee, Henrik},
  title = {Intermittent tapping control},
  volume = 226,
  number = 9,
  pages = {1262-1273},
  year = 2012,
  doi = {10.1177/0959651812450114},
  abstract = {Control using a sequence of ‘taps’, in contrast to the usual smooth control, is shown to fit within the established intermittent control framework. In particular, a specially designed generalised hold gives rise to tapping behaviour optimised according to the underlying linear-quadratic design. Both fixed-interval and event-driven tapping are included in this approach and some basic stability analysis is given. Illustrative examples are presented and the advantages of tapping in the context of electromechanical servo systems with friction are explored using a laboratory experiment.},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering},
  note = {Published online on July 26, 2012}
}
@article{GolMamLorGaw12,
  author = {H. Gollee and A. Mamma and I. D. Loram and P. J. Gawthrop},
  title = {Frequency-domain Identification of the Human Controller},
  year = 2012,
  issn = {0340-1200},
  journal = {Biological Cybernetics},
  volume = 106,
  issue = {6-7},
  doi = {10.1007/s00422-012-0503-9},
  pages = {359-372},
  note = {Published online: 14 July 2012},
  abstract = {
System identification techniques applied to experimental human-in-the-loop data provide an objective test of three alternative control–theoretical models of the human control system: non-predictive control, predictive control, and intermittent predictive control. A two-stage approach to the identification of a single-input single-output control system is used: first, the closed-loop frequency response is derived using the periodic property of the experimental data, followed by the fitting of a parametric model. While this approach is well-established for non-predictive and predictive control, it is here used for the first time with intermittent predictive control. This technique is applied to data from experiments with human volunteers who use one of two control strategies, focusing either on position or on velocity, to manually control a virtual, unstable load which requires sustained feedback to maintain position or low velocity. The results show firstly that the non-predictive controller does not fit the data as well as the other two models, and secondly that the predictive and intermittent predictive controllers provide equally good models which cannot be distinguished using this approach. Importantly, the second observation implies that sustained visual manual control is compatible with intermittent control, and that previous results suggesting a continuous control model for the human control system do not rule out intermittent control as an alternative hypothesis. Thirdly, the parameters identified reflect the control strategy adopted by the human controller. 
}
}
@article{GawWagNeiWan12,
  author = {Gawthrop, Peter and Wagg, David and Neild, Simon and Wang, Liuping},
  title = {Power-constrained intermittent control},
  journal = {International Journal of Control},
  volume = 86,
  number = 3,
  pages = {396-409},
  year = 2013,
  doi = {10.1080/00207179.2012.733888},
  abstract = { In this article, input power, as opposed to the usual input amplitude, constraints are introduced in the context of intermittent control. They are shown to result in a combination of quadratic optimisation and quadratic constraints. The main motivation for considering input power constraints is its similarity with semi-active control. Such methods are commonly used to provide damping in mechanical systems and structures. It is shown that semi-active control can be re-expressed and generalised as control with power constraints and can thus be implemented as power-constrained intermittent control. The method is illustrated using simulations of resonant mechanical systems and the constrained nature of the power flow is represented using power-phase-plane plots. We believe the approach we present will be useful for the control design of both semi-active and low-power vibration suppression systems. },
  note = {Published online 30 Oct 2012}
}
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@article{KamGawGolLor13,
  author = {{van de Kamp}, Cornelis AND Gawthrop, Peter J. 
             AND Gollee,  Henrik AND Loram, Ian D.},
  journal = {PLoS Comput Biol},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  title = {Refractoriness in Sustained Visuo-Manual Control: Is the Refractory Duration Intrinsic or Does It Depend on External System Properties?},
  year = 2013,
  month = 01,
  volume = 9,
  pages = {e1002843},
  abstract = {In biology, the control of physiological variables such as body position, blood pressure and body temperature is founded on negative feedback mechanisms governing homeostasic input-output relations. The conceptual models capturing the underlying control principles are often drawn from engineering control theory. The visuo-manual control of external systems (like balancing a stick on the palm of one's hand) has traditionally been interpreted using continuous paradigms such as the servo controller or the continuous optimal controller. These engineering controllers were designed for machine systems with precise sensors, consistent actuators, short time delays and fast computers. Quite the opposite is true for the human movement system that is characterized by long neuromuscular delays, variability, history dependence and fatigue. Serial ballistic control offers an alternative control paradigm in which smooth control proceeds as a sequence of sub-movements each planned using current sensory information but then intermittently executed “open loop”. In the current study we are the first to formally identify refractoriness, a behavioural characteristic that discriminates intermittent (serial ballistic) from continuous control, in the domain of sustained (non-discrete) control of first and second order systems providing definite evidence for the validity of intermittent open-loop control as a paradigm for sustained human control.},
  number = 1,
  doi = {10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002843}
}
@article{KamGawGolLakLor13,
  author = {{van de Kamp}, Cornelis  and  Gawthrop, Peter  and  Gollee, Henrik  and  Lakie, Martin  and  Loram, Ian David},
  title = {Interfacing sensory input with motor output: does the control architecture converge to a serial process along a single channel?},
  journal = {Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience},
  volume = 7,
  year = 2013,
  number = 55,
  doi = {10.3389/fncom.2013.00055},
  issn = {1662-5188},
  abstract = {Modular organisation in control architecture may underlie the versatility of human motor control; but the nature of the interface relating sensory input through task-selection in the space of performance variables to control actions in the space of the elemental variables is currently unknown. Our central question is whether the control architecture converges to a serial process along a single channel? In discrete reaction time experiments, psychologists have firmly associated a serial single channel hypothesis with refractoriness and response selection (psychological refractory period). Recently, we developed a methodology and evidence identifying refractoriness in sustained control of an external single degree-of-freedom system. We hypothesise that multi-segmental whole-body control also shows refractoriness. Eight participants controlled their whole body to ensure a head marker tracked a target as fast and accurately as possible. Analysis showed enhanced delays in response to stimuli with close temporal proximity to the preceding stimulus. Consistent with our preceding work, this evidence is incompatible with control as a linear time invariant process. This evidence is consistent with a single-channel serial ballistic process within the intermittent control paradigm with an intermittent interval of around 0.5 s. A control architecture reproducing intentional human movement control must reproduce refractoriness. Intermittent control is designed to provide computational time for an online optimisation process and is appropriate for flexible adaptive control. For human motor control we suggest that parallel sensory input converges to a serial, single channel process involving planning, selection and temporal inhibition of alternative responses prior to low dimensional motor output. Such design could aid robots to reproduce the flexibility of human control.}
}
@article{GawLeeHalODw13,
  year = 2013,
  issn = {0340-1200},
  journal = {Biological Cybernetics},
  volume = {107},
  number = {6},
  doi = {10.1007/s00422-013-0564-4},
  title = {Human stick balancing: an intermittent control explanation},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  author = {Gawthrop, Peter and Lee, Kwee-Yum and Halaki, Mark and O'Dwyer, Nicholas},
  pages = {637-652},
  language = {English},
  note = {Published online: 13th August 2013},
  abstract = { There are two issues in balancing a stick pivoting on a
                  finger tip (or mechanically on a moving cart):
                  maintaining the stick angle near to vertical and
                  maintaining the horizontal position within the
                  bounds of reach or cart track. The (linearised)
                  dynamics of the angle are second order (although
                  driven by pivot acceleration), and so, as in human
                  standing, control of the angle is not, by itself
                  very difficult. However, once the angle is under
                  control, the position dynamics are, in general,
                  fourth order. This makes control quite difficult for
                  humans (and even an engineering control system
                  requires careful design). Recently, three of the
                  authors have experimentally demonstrated that humans
                  control the stick angle in a special way: the
                  closed-loop inverted pendulum behaves as a
                  non-inverted pendulum with a virtual pivot somewhere
                  between the stick centre and tip and with increased
                  gravity. Moreover, they suggest that the virtual
                  pivot lies at the radius of gyration (about the mass
                  centre) above the mass centre. This paper gives a
                  continuous-time control-theoretical interpretation
                  of the virtual-pendulum approach. In particular, by
                  using a novel cascade control structure, it is shown
                  that the horizontal control of the virtual pivot
                  becomes a second-order problem which is much easier
                  to solve than the generic fourth-order
                  problem. Hence, the use of the virtual pivot
                  approach allows the control problem to be perceived
                  by the subject as two separate second-order problems
                  rather than a single fourth-order problem, and the
                  control problem is therefore simplified. The
                  theoretical predictions are verified using the data
                  previously presented by three of the authors and
                  analysed using a standard parameter estimation
                  method. The experimental data indicate that although
                  all subjects adopt the virtual pivot approach, the
                  less expert subjects exhibit larger amplitude
                  angular motion and poorly controlled translational
                  motion. It is known that human control systems are
                  delayed and intermittent, and therefore, the
                  continuous-time strategy cannot be correct. However,
                  the model of intermittent control used in this paper
                  is based on the virtual pivot continuous-time
                  control scheme, handles time delays and moreover
                  masquerades as the underlying continuous-time
                  controller. In addition, the event-driven properties
                  of intermittent control can explain experimentally
                  observed variability.  }
}
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@article{GawLorGolLak14,
  year = 2014,
  issn = {0340-1200},
  journal = {Biological Cybernetics},
  doi = {10.1007/s00422-014-0587-5},
  title = {Intermittent control models of human standing: similarities and differences},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  keywords = {Intermittent control; Predictive control; Human balancing; Quiet standing},
  author = {Gawthrop, Peter and Loram, Ian and Gollee, Henrik and Lakie, Martin},
  volume = 108,
  number = 2,
  pages = {159-168},
  language = {English},
  abstract = { Two architectures of intermittent control are compared
                  and contrasted in the context of the single inverted
                  pendulum model often used for describing standing in
                  humans. The architectures are similar insofar as
                  they use periods of open-loop control punctuated by
                  switching events when crossing a switching surface
                  to keep the system state trajectories close to
                  trajectories leading to equilibrium. The
                  architectures differ in two significant
                  ways. Firstly, in one case, the open-loop control
                  trajectory is generated by a system-matched hold,
                  and in the other case, the open-loop control signal
                  is zero. Secondly, prediction is used in one case
                  but not the other. The former difference is examined
                  in this paper. The zero control alternative leads to
                  periodic oscillations associated with limit cycles;
                  whereas the system-matched control alternative gives
                  trajectories (including homoclinic orbits) which
                  contain the equilibrium point and do not have
                  oscillatory behaviour. Despite this difference in
                  behaviour, it is further shown that behaviour can
                  appear similar when either the system is perturbed
                  by additive noise or the system-matched trajectory
                  generation is perturbed. The purpose of the research
                  is to come to a common approach for understanding
                  the theoretical properties of the two alternatives
                  with the twin aims of choosing which provides the
                  best explanation of current experimental data (which
                  may not, by itself, distinguish beween the two
                  alternatives) and suggesting future experiments to
                  distinguish beween the two alternatives.  },
  note = {Published online 6th {February} 2014.}
}
@article{LorKamLakGolGaw14,
  author = {Loram, Ian D. and {van de Kamp}, Cornelis and Lakie, Martin 
                  and Gollee, Henrik and Gawthrop, Peter J},
  title = {Does the motor system need intermittent control?},
  journal = {Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews},
  year = 2014,
  month = {July},
  volume = 42,
  number = 3,
  pages = {117-125},
  doi = {10.1249/JES.0000000000000018},
  note = {Published online 9 May 2014},
  abstract = {Explanation of motor control is dominated by continuous neurophysiological pathways (e.g. trans-cortical, spinal) and the continuous control paradigm. Using new theoretical development, methodology and evidence, we propose intermittent control, which incorporates a serial ballistic process within the main feedback loop, provides a more general and more accurate paradigm necessary to explain attributes highly advantageous for competitive survival and performance.}
}
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@incollection{GawGolLor15,
  author = {Gawthrop, Peter
		and Gollee, Henrik
		and Loram, Ian},
  booktitle = {Event-Based Control and Signal Processing},
  editor = {Marek Miskowicz},
  series = {Embedded Systems},
  title = {Intermittent Control in Man and Machine},
  chapter = 14,
  series = {Embedded Systems},
  year = 2015,
  month = {Nov},
  day = 24,
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  pages = {281-350},
  isbn = {978-1-4822-5655-0},
  doi = {10.1201/b19013-16},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1407.3543},
  note = {Available at {arXiv:1407.3543}},
  abstract = { It is now over 70 years since Kenneth J.  Craik
                  postulated that human control systems behave in an
                  intermittent, rather than a continuous,
                  fashion. This chapter provides a mathematical model
                  of event-driven intermittent control, examines how
                  this model explains some phenomena related to human
                  motion control, and presents some experimental
                  evidence for intermittency.  Some new material
                  related to constrained multivariable intermittent
                  control is presented in the context of human
                  standing, and some new material related to adaptive
                  intermittent control is presented in the context of
                  human balance and reaching.  We believe that the
                  ideas presented here in a physiological context will
                  also prove to be useful in an engineering context.}
}
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@article{GolGawLakLor17,
  author = {Gollee, Henrik and Gawthrop, Peter J. and Lakie, Martin and Loram, Ian D.},
  title = {Visuo-manual tracking: does intermittent control with aperiodic sampling explain linear power and non-linear remnant without sensorimotor noise?},
  journal = {The Journal of Physiology},
  volume = 595,
  number = 21,
  issn = {1469-7793},
  doi = {10.1113/JP274288},
  pages = {6751--6770},
  keywords = {motor control, intermittent control, variability},
  year = 2017,
  abstract = {
The human operator is described adequately by linear translation of sensory input to motor output. Motor output also always includes a non-linear remnant resulting from random sensorimotor noise from multiple sources, and non-linear input transformations, for example thresholds or refractory periods. Recent evidence showed that manual tracking incurs substantial, serial, refractoriness (insensitivity to sensory information of 350 and 550 ms for 1st and 2nd order systems respectively). Our two questions are: (i) What are the comparative merits of explaining the non-linear remnant using noise or non-linear transformations? (ii) Can non-linear transformations represent serial motor decision making within the sensorimotor feedback loop intrinsic to tracking? Twelve participants (instructed to act in three prescribed ways) manually controlled two systems (1st and 2nd order) subject to a periodic multi-sine disturbance. Joystick power was analysed using three models, continuous-linear-control (CC), continuous-linear-control with calculated noise spectrum (CCN), and intermittent control with aperiodic sampling triggered by prediction error thresholds (IC). Unlike the linear mechanism, the intermittent control mechanism explained the majority of total power (linear and remnant) (77–87 vs. 8–48, IC vs. CC). Between conditions, IC used thresholds and distributions of open loop intervals consistent with, respectively, instructions and previous measured, model independent values; whereas CCN required changes in noise spectrum deviating from broadband, signal dependent noise. We conclude that manual tracking uses open loop predictive control with aperiodic sampling. Because aperiodic sampling is inherent to serial decision making within previously identified, specific frontal, striatal and parietal networks we suggest that these structures are intimately involved in visuo-manual tracking.
}
}
@article{Gaw17cX,
  author = {{Gawthrop}, P.~J.},
  title = {{Sensitivity Properties of Intermittent Control}},
  journal = {ArXiv e-prints},
  archiveprefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1705.08228},
  keywords = {Computer Science - Systems and Control, Quantitative Biology - Quantitative Methods},
  year = 2017,
  month = may,
  note = {Available at {arXiv:1705.08228}}
}
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@incollection{GawGolLakLor20,
  author = {Gawthrop, Peter
and Gollee, Henrik
and Lakie, Martin
and Loram, Ian D.},
  editor = {Jaeger, Dieter
and Jung, Ranu},
  title = {Intermittent Control of Movement and Balance},
  booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience},
  year = {2020},
  publisher = {Springer New York},
  address = {New York, NY},
  pages = {1--6},
  isbn = {978-1-4614-7320-6},
  doi = {10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6\_100701-1}
}
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@article{LorGolKamGaw22,
  author = {Loram, Ian and Gollee, Henrik and Kamp, Cornelis van de and Gawthrop, Peter},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering},
  title = {Is intermittent control the source of the non-linear oscillatory component (0.2-2{Hz}) in human balance control?},
  year = 2022,
  pages = {1-1},
  doi = {10.1109/TBME.2022.3174927}
}
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@article{AlvGolGaw23,
  author = {J Alberto Álvarez-Martín and Henrik Gollee and Peter J Gawthrop},
  title = {Event-driven adaptive intermittent control applied to a rotational pendulum},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering},
  volume = 237,
  number = 6,
  pages = {1000-1014},
  year = 2023,
  doi = {10.1177/09596518221147340},
  abstract = { Intermittent control combines open-loop trajectories with feedback at discrete time instances determined by events. Among other applications, it has recently been used to model quiet standing in humans where the system was assumed to be time-invariant. This article expands this work to the time-variant case by introducing an adaptive intermittent controller that exploits the well-known self-tuning architecture of adaptive control with a Kalman filter to perform online state and parameter estimation. Simulation and experimental results using a rotational inverted pendulum show advantages of the intermittent controllers compared to continuous feedback control since the former can provide persistent excitation due to their internal triggering mechanism, even when no external reference changes or disturbances are applied. Moreover, the results show that the event thresholds of intermittent control can be used to adjust the degree of responsiveness of the adaptation in the system, becoming a tool to balance the trade-off between steady-state performance and flexibility against parametric changes, addressing the stability–plasticity dilemma of adaptation and learning in control. }
}
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@comment{{Database of Papers Produced by members of the Glasgow University
	Control Group}}
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@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2004 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2005 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2006 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2007 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2008 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2009 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2010 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2011 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2012 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2013 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2014 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2015 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2016 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2017 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2018 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2019 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2018 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2020 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2021 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2022 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set Emacs into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Database of non-CSC publications  in 2023 }}
@comment{{This is the file that should be edited to add non-CSC publications}}
@comment{{-*-bibtex-*- used to set EMACS into bibtex-mode}}
@comment{{Cross References for Conferences MUST go in footers}}

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